The Five Components of a Communication Model

The Five Components of a Communication Model

Five elements of communication

Messages are communicated in five ways: the sender and receiver, the medium through which they are sent, contextual factors, the message, and feedback. For your message to have the greatest impact, you need to consider the variables that influence each component of your model. You can improve your communication skills by following these five components.

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Sender and receiver

There are a few factors that can influence how a sender and receiver communicate:

  • There are differences in the way senders and receivers perceive information due to their beliefs, values, and personalities. Thus, the same information may affect both senders and receivers differently.
  • The message of a sender is not understood as intended because of various barriers to communication. A grammar error, poor word choice, or the sender’s relationship with the recipient can be examples of bad grammar.


In addition to talking face-to-face, you can communicate with someone via email, instant messaging, telephone, or letter. Consider these factors when choosing the appropriate medium:

  • importance of the message – You should always deliver messages that are really important face-to-face or by phone. Such delivery has a greater impact and allows for immediate response. For messages that are not urgent or to which you do not need an immediate response, E-mail is the best choice. Casual messages should be sent via Instant Messaging.
  • practicality – Telephonic communication is more practical than face-to-face meetings when senders and recipients are geographically dispersed. If you need to convey a lot of information or keep track of what has been discussed, it makes more sense to use a text-based medium like e-mail. In addition to costs and physical space requirements, different communication media come with potential delays.
  • your and the receiver’s preferences – Certain media simply appeal to some people more than others. When communicating effectively, consider the preference of the other party. Communication processes in the individual’s organization may also have an impact on this.
  • receiver’s communication style – When information is presented visually, some people respond better. Other people prefer to rely on what they hear or on text-based information. Others learn best by putting their ideas into practice or by creating models. Consider the receiver’s preferred communication style when selecting an effective medium. Take into account whether the receiver will be receptive to your message. Sensitive information should be communicated via telephone rather than email, for example.
  • need for feedback – Choosing a medium that allows immediate feedback from the receiver – such as face-to-face meetings or telephone calls – is the best move if you need feedback from the receiver without delay. A medium like e-mail may be appropriate if feedback isn’t urgent. You might prefer a less personal medium that does not support two-way communication if you don’t need feedback at all.

Contextual factors

Communicating effectively between sender and receiver can be affected by a variety of contextual factors:

  • body language –Including facial expressions, gestures, and posture, body language refers to all nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication plays an important role in face-to-face communications. It is often through these signals that people convey things that might not be said directly – such as their enthusiasm, their attentiveness, and even their annoyance. Body language is a crucial aspect of communication when you are speaking to someone. Additionally, it’s important to read the body language of the other person so you can respond appropriately.
  • timing – Messages can be received well or badly based on the timing of their delivery. You should also time your messages so they reach the recipient when they are ready to read them.
  • environment – The informality or formality of the setting, the amount of noise in the environment, and the temperature of the room can all affect the ability of a sender and receiver to communicate. Their proximity is also an important factor. Their physical proximity also plays a role.

Whenever you communicate with others, you should also consider the following contextual factors:

  • You should consider the language you use when creating a message
  • When you formulate your message, you make assumptions
  • Dialoguing about your message with the receiver, and
  • How you speak, your volume, and how quickly you speak

There is also “noise” in communications, which leads to the message being misunderstood by the receiver, such as distracting sounds, poor hearing, mispronunciation, and errors in the message’s transfer.


An object of communication or what is being communicated is defined as a message. Messages can be communicated in many different ways. Its wording, its directness, and its purpose are some qualities of an effective message.

Messages have specific purposes:

  • The purpose of conveying important facts or information
  • It is the act of persuading the recipient to accept or reject certain conditions or actions
  • Motivating the recipient to perform a specific action
  • In order to provoke discussion on a particular issue, or
  • For the purpose of entertaining the receiver

Many things can be accomplished with it, such as instructing, warning, welcoming, and requesting information. Sending an effective message means knowing exactly why you are doing so.


Responses to communicated messages are called feedback. It can be written, visual, or verbal, and may be conveyed by any of these methods. Communication becomes two-way when feedback is provided. Positive or negative feedback can be provided:

  • Positive feedback indicates the receiver understands and has received the 
  • Negative feedback means that the receiver either didn’t receive the message or didn’t understand it

It is essential for the sender to receive feedback during communication so that any necessary adjustments can be made. After the message has been delivered, feedback can also be helpful. Feedback can be used to clarify or discuss the message further.

The five elements of communication are the sender, the receiver, the medium, contextual factors, and the message. Considering all of the variables that influence each component and how each varies from situation to situation, it is vital that communicators carefully plan and target their messages.

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